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Chapter 4 review



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The concept of vitalism is based on a belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws. According to this belief, organic compounds can arise only within living organisms. Which of the following did the most to refute the concept of vitalism?
a.
Wöhler's synthesis of urea
b.
Berzelius's distinction between organic and inorganic compounds
c.
Miller's experiments with ancient atmospheres
d.
Rodriguez's studies of phytochemicals
e.
Kolbe's synthesis of acetic acid
 

 2. 

How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
8
 

 3. 

What type(s) of bond(s) does carbon have a tendency to form most often?
a.
ionic attraction
b.
hydrogen
c.
covalent
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 4. 

Which of the following is (are) true about the carbon atoms present in all organic molecules?
a.
They were incorporated into organic molecules by plants.
b.
They were processed into sugars through photosynthesis.
c.
They are ultimately derived from carbon dioxide.
d.
Only A and C are correct.
e.
A, B, and C are correct.
 

 5. 

What is the reason why hydrocarbons are not soluble in water?
a.
The majority of their bonds are polar covalent carbon to hydrogen linkages.
b.
The majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.
c.
They are hydrophilic.
d.
They exhibit considerable molecular complexity and diversity.
e.
They are lighter than water.
 
 
Use the figure below to answer the following question.

chpt04_files/i0070000.jpg
 

 6. 

Observe the structures of glucose and fructose. These two molecules are
a.
geometric isotopes.
b.
enantiomers.
c.
geometric isomers.
d.
structural isomers.
e.
nonisotopic isomers.
 

 7. 

The two molecules shown in the following figure are best described as

chpt04_files/i0090000.jpg
a.
enantiomers.
b.
radioactive isotopes.
c.
structural isomers.
d.
nonisotopic isomers.
e.
geometric isomers.
 

 8. 

Which is the best description of a carbonyl group?
a.
an oxygen joined to a carbon by a single covalent bond
b.
a nitrogen and two hydrogens joined to a carbon by covalent bonds
c.
a carbon joined to two hydrogens by single covalent bonds
d.
a sulfur and a hydrogen joined to a carbon by covalent bonds
e.
a carbon atom joined to an oxygen by a double covalent bond
 

 9. 

Which of the following is a false statement concerning amino groups?
a.
They are basic in pH.
b.
They are found in amino acids.
c.
They contain nitrogen.
d.
They are nonpolar.
e.
They are components of urea.
 

 10. 

A carbon skeleton is covalently bonded to both an amino group and a carboxyl group. When placed in water it
a.
would function only as an acid because of the carboxyl group.
b.
would function only as a base because of the amino group.
c.
would function as neither an acid nor a base.
d.
would function as both an acid and a base.
e.
is impossible to determine how it would function.
 

 11. 

Which functional groups can act as acids?
a.
amine and sulfhydryl
b.
carbonyl and carboxyl
c.
carboxyl and phosphate
d.
alcohol and aldehyde
e.
ketone and amino
 
 
Use the figure below to answer the following questions.

chpt04_files/i0140000.jpg
 

 12. 

Which is a alcohol (your book calls it a hydroxyl) functional group?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 

 13. 

Which is an amino functional group?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 

 14. 

Which is a carbonyl functional group?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 

 15. 

Which is an acidic functional group that can dissociate and release H+ into a solution?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 

 16. 

Which is a basic functional group that can accept H+ and become positively charged?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 
 
Use the molecules shown in the figure below to answer the following questions..

chpt04_files/i0200000.jpg
 

 17. 

Which molecule contains a sulfhydryl functional group?
a.
Molecule A
b.
Molecule B
c.
Molecule C
d.
Molecule D
e.
Molecule E
 

 18. 

Which molecule contains an amino functional group, but is not an amino acid?
a.
Molecule A
b.
Molecule B
c.
Molecule C
d.
Molecule D
e.
Molecule E
 

 19. 

Which molecule is a thiol?
a.
Molecule A
b.
Molecule B
c.
Molecule C
d.
Molecule D
e.
Molecule E
 

 20. 

Which molecule is an organic phosphate?
a.
Molecule A
b.
Molecule B
c.
Molecule C
d.
Molecule D
e.
Molecule E
 

 21. 

Which molecule can function as a base?
a.
Molecule A
b.
Molecule B
c.
Molecule C
d.
Molecule D
e.
Molecule E
 

 22. 

Which of the following statements is (are) true about the phosphate ion?
a.
It is negatively charged.
b.
It has acid properties.
c.
It is hydrophobic.
d.
Only A and B are true.
e.
A, B, and C are true.
 



 
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