Name: 
 

Chapter 5 review



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following is not one of the four major groups of macromolecules found in living organisms?
a.
glucose
b.
carbohydrates
c.
lipids
d.
proteins
e.
nucleic acids
 

 2. 

Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all synthesized from monomers by which process?
a.
connecting monosaccharides together (condensation reactions)
b.
the addition of water to each monomer (hydrolysis)
c.
the removal of water (dehydration reactions)
d.
ionic bonding of the monomers
e.
the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers
 

 3. 

A molecule with the chemical formula C16H32O16 is probably a
a.
carbohydrate.
b.
lipid.
c.
protein.
d.
nucleic acid.
e.
hydrocarbon.
 

 4. 

Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?
a.
as a pentose
b.
as a hexose
c.
as a monosaccharide
d.
as a disaccharide
e.
as a polysaccharide
 

 5. 

Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because
a.
the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose.
b.
humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the beta chpt05_files/i0060000.jpg glycosidic linkages of starch but not the alpha chpt05_files/i0060001.jpg glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
c.
humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha chpt05_files/i0060002.jpg glycosidic linkages of starch but not the beta chpt05_files/i0060003.jpg glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
d.
humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive tract.
e.
the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is maltose.
 

 6. 

A molecule with the formula C18H36O2 is probably a
a.
carbohydrate.
b.
lipid.
c.
protein.
d.
nucleic acid.
e.
hydrocarbon.
 

 7. 

Triacylglycerol is a
a.
protein with tertiary structure.
b.
lipid made with three fatty acids and glycerol.
c.
lipid that makes up much of the plasma membrane.
d.
molecule formed from three alcohols by dehydration reactions.
e.
carbohydrate with three sugars joined together by glycosidic linkages.
 

 8. 

The molecule shown in the figure below is a

chpt05_files/i0090000.jpg

a.
polysaccharide.
b.
polypeptide.
c.
saturated fatty acid.
d.
triacylglycerol.
e.
unsaturated fatty acid.
 

 9. 

What is the structure shown in the figure below?

chpt05_files/i0100000.jpg
a.
starch molecule
b.
protein molecule
c.
steroid molecule
d.
cellulose molecule
e.
phospholipid molecule
 

 10. 

The 20 different amino acids found in polypeptides exhibit different chemical and physical properties because of different
a.
carboxyl groups attached to an alpha chpt05_files/i0110000.jpg carbon
b.
amino groups attached to an alpha chpt05_files/i0110001.jpg carbon
c.
side chains (R groups).
d.
alpha chpt05_files/i0110002.jpg carbons.
e.
asymmetric carbons.
 

 11. 

The chemical reaction illustrated in the figure below results in the formation of a (an)

chpt05_files/i0120000.jpg

a.
ionic bond.
b.
peptide bond.
c.
glycosidic linkage.
d.
ester linkage.
e.
phosphodiester linkage.
 

 12. 

How many different kinds of polypeptides, each composed of 12 amino acids, could be synthesized using the 20 common amino acids?
a.
412
b.
1220 (12^20)
c.
125
d.
20
e.
2012 (20^12)
 

 13. 

Which type of interaction stabilizes the alpha chpt05_files/i0140000.jpg helix and the beta chpt05_files/i0140001.jpg pleated sheet structures of proteins?
a.
hydrophobic interactions
b.
nonpolar covalent bonds
c.
ionic bonds
d.
hydrogen bonds
e.
peptide bonds
 

 14. 

The figure below shows the

chpt05_files/i0150000.jpg
a.
1-4 linkage of the chpt05_files/i0150001.jpg glucose monomers of starch.
b.
1-4 linkage of the chpt05_files/i0150002.jpg glucose monomers of cellulose.
c.
double helical structure of a DNA molecule.
d.
chpt05_files/i0150003.jpg helix secondary structure of a polypeptide.
e.
chpt05_files/i0150004.jpg pleated sheet secondary structure of a polypeptide.
 

 15. 

The tertiary structure of a protein is the
a.
bonding together of several polypeptide chains by weak bonds.
b.
order in which amino acids are joined in a polypeptide chain.
c.
unique three-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide.
d.
organization of a polypeptide chain into an á helix or â pleated sheet.
e.
overall protein structure resulting from the aggregation of two or more polypeptide subunits.
 

 16. 

What would be an unexpected consequence of changing one amino acid in a protein consisting of 325 amino acids?
a.
The primary structure of the protein would be changed.
b.
The tertiary structure of the protein might be changed.
c.
The biological activity or function of the protein might be altered.
d.
Only A and C are correct.
e.
A, B, and C are correct.
 

 17. 

All of the following molecules are proteins except
a.
hemoglobin.
b.
transthyretin.
c.
collagen.
d.
lysozyme.
e.
glycogen.
 

 18. 

What is the term used for a protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of other proteins?
a.
tertiary protein
b.
chaperonin
c.
enzyme protein
d.
renaturing protein
e.
denaturing protein
 

 19. 

Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
a.
a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
b.
a nitrogenous base and a pentose sugar
c.
a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar
d.
a phosphate group and an adenine or uracil
e.
a pentose sugar and a purine or pyrimidine
 

 20. 

All of the following nitrogenous bases are found in DNA except
a.
thymine.
b.
adenine.
c.
uracil.
d.
guanine.
e.
cytosine.
 

 21. 

Which of the following statements best summarizes the structural differences between DNA and RNA?
a.
RNA is a protein, whereas DNA is a nucleic acid.
b.
DNA is a protein, whereas RNA is a nucleic acid.
c.
DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA nucleotides.
d.
RNA is a double helix, but DNA is single-stranded.
e.
A and D are correct.
 

 22. 

If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases 5'ATTGCA3', the other complementary strand would have the sequence
a.
5'TAACGT3'.
b.
3'TAACGT5'.
c.
5'UAACGU3'.
d.
3'UAACGU5'.
e.
5'UGCAAU3'.
 

 23. 

The element nitrogen is present in all of the following except
a.
proteins.
b.
nucleic acids.
c.
amino acids.
d.
DNA.
e.
monosaccharides.
 



 
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