Name: 
 

Chapter 16 Review



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

For a couple of decades, biologists knew the nucleus contained DNA and proteins. The prevailing opinion was that the genetic material was proteins, and not DNA. The reason for this belief was that proteins are more complex than DNA. This is because
a.
proteins have a greater variety of three-dimensional forms than does DNA.
b.
proteins have two different levels of structural organization; DNA has four.
c.
proteins are made of 20 amino acids and DNA is made of four nucleotides.
d.
Only A and C are correct.
e.
A, B, and C are correct.
 

 2. 

In his transformation experiments, Griffith observed that
a.
mutant mice were resistant to bacterial infections.
b.
mixing a heat-killed pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic strain can convert some of the living cells into the pathogenic form.
c.
mixing a heat-killed nonpathogenic strain of bacteria with a living pathogenic strain makes the pathogenic strain nonpathogenic.
d.
infecting mice with nonpathogenic strains of bacteria makes them resistant to pathogenic strains.
e.
mice infected with a pathogenic strain of bacteria can spread the infection to other mice.
 

 3. 

In trying to determine whether DNA or protein is the genetic material, Hershey and Chase made use of which of the following facts?
a.
DNA does not contain sulfur, whereas protein does.
b.
DNA contains phosphorus, but protein does not.
c.
DNA contains nitrogen, whereas protein does not.
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 4. 

The DNA double helix has a uniform diameter because ____, which have two rings, always pair with ____, which have one ring.
a.
purines; pyrimidines
b.
pyrimidines; purines
c.
deoxyribose sugars; ribose sugars
d.
ribose sugars; deoxyribose sugars
e.
nucleotides; nucleoside triphosphates
 

 5. 

It became apparent to Watson and Crick after completion of their model that the DNA molecule could carry a vast amount of hereditary information in its
a.
sequence of bases.
b.
phosphate-sugar backbones.
c.
complementary pairing of bases.
d.
side groups of nitrogenous bases.
e.
different five-carbon sugars.
 

 6. 

The strands that make up DNA are antiparallel. This means that
a.
the twisting nature of DNA creates nonparallel strands.
b.
the 5' to 3' direction of one strand runs counter to the 5' to 3' direction of the other strand.
c.
base pairings create unequal spacing between the two DNA strands.
d.
one strand is positively charged and the other is negatively charged.
e.
one strand contains only purines and the other contains only pyrimidines.
 
 
Use the figure below to answer the following questions.

chpt16_files/i0080000.jpg
 

 7. 

A space probe returns with a culture of a microorganism found on a distant planet. Analysis shows that it is a carbon-based life-form that has DNA. You grow the cells in 15N medium for several generations and then transfer them to 14N medium. Which pattern in the figure above would you expect if the DNA was replicated in a conservative manner?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 8. 

Which enzyme catalyzes the elongation of a DNA strand in the 5' chpt16_files/i0100000.jpg 3' direction?
a.
primase
b.
DNA ligase
c.
DNA polymerase
d.
topoisomerase
e.
helicase
 

 9. 

Which of the following is least related to the others on the list?
a.
Okazaki fragments
b.
replication fork
c.
telomerase
d.
DNA polymerase
e.
semiconservative model
 

 10. 

The leading and the lagging strands differ in that
a.
the leading strand is synthesized in the same direction as the movement of the replication fork, and the lagging strand is synthesized in the opposite direction.
b.
the leading strand is synthesized by adding nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing strand, and the lagging strand is synthesized by adding nucleotides to the 5' end.
c.
the leading strand is synthesized continuously, whereas the lagging strand is synthesized in short fragments that are ultimately stitched together.
d.
both A and B
e.
both A and C
 

 11. 

Which of the following best describes the addition of nucleotides to a growing DNA chain?
a.
A nucleoside triphosphate is added to the 5' end of the DNA, releasing a molecule of pyrophosphate.
b.
A nucleoside triphosphate is added to the 3' end of the DNA, releasing a molecule of pyrophosphate.
c.
A nucleoside diphosphate is added to the 5' end of the DNA, releasing a molecule of phosphate.
d.
A nucleoside diphosphate is added to the 3' end of the DNA, releasing a molecule of phosphate.
e.
A nucleoside monophosphate is added to the 3' end of the DNA.
 

 12. 

What is the function of topoisomerase?
a.
relieving strain in the DNA ahead of the replication fork
b.
elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by addition of nucleotides to the existing chain
c.
the addition of methyl groups to bases of DNA
d.
unwinding of the double helix
e.
stabilizing single-stranded DNA at the replication fork
 

 13. 

All of the following are functions of DNA polymerase in DNA replication except
a.
covalently adding nucleotides to the new strands.
b.
proofreading each added nucleotide for correct base pairing.
c.
replacing RNA primers with DNA.
d.
initiating a polynucleotide strand.
e.
none of the above
 

 14. 

Which of the following statements about telomeres is correct?
a.
They contain multiple copies of a short RNA sequence.
b.
They are present at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.
c.
They can be extended by an enzyme called telomerase.
d.
both A and B
e.
both B and C
 



 
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