Name: 
 

Chapter 20 Review



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

If you discovered a bacterial cell that contained no restriction enzymes, which of the following would you expect to happen?
a.
The cell would be unable to replicate its DNA.
b.
The cell would create incomplete plasmids.
c.
The cell would be easily infected and lysed by bacteriophages.
d.
The cell would become an obligate parasite.
e.
Both A and D would occur.
 

 2. 

Assume that you are trying to insert a gene into a plasmid. Someone gives you a preparation of genomic DNA that has been cut with restriction enzyme X. The gene you wish to insert has sites on both ends for cutting by restriction enzyme Y. You have a plasmid with a single site for Y, but not for X. Your strategy should be to
a.
insert the fragments cut with X directly into the plasmid without cutting the plasmid.
b.
cut the plasmid with restriction enzyme X and insert the fragments cut with Y into the plasmid.
c.
cut the DNA again with restriction enzyme Y and insert these fragments into the plasmid cut with the same enzyme.
d.
cut the plasmid twice with restriction enzyme Y and ligate the two fragments onto the ends of the DNA fragments cut with restriction enzyme X.
e.
cut the plasmid with enzyme X and then insert the gene into the plasmid.
 

 3. 

What are the typical characteristics of a cloning vector?
a.
Bacterial cells cannot survive without it when grown under certain conditions.
b.
It contains restriction sites that allow the insertion of foreign DNA segments.
c.
It can replicate in bacterial cells.
d.
Only B and C are correct.
e.
A, B, and C are correct.
 

 4. 

Bacteria containing recombinant plasmids are often identified by which process?
a.
examining the cells with an electron microscope
b.
using radioactive tracers to locate the plasmids
c.
exposing the bacteria to an antibiotic that kills cells lacking the plasmid
d.
removing the DNA of all cells in a culture to see which cells have plasmids
e.
producing antibodies specific for each bacterium containing a recombinant plasmid
 

 5. 

A gene that contains introns can be made shorter (but remain functional) for genetic engineering purposes by using
a.
RNA polymerase to transcribe the gene.
b.
a restriction enzyme to cut the gene into shorter pieces.
c.
reverse transcriptase to reconstruct the gene from its mRNA.
d.
DNA polymerase to reconstruct the gene from its polypeptide product.
e.
DNA ligase to put together fragments of the DNA that codes for a particular polypeptide.
 

 6. 

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to amplify DNA from which of the following?
a.
fossils
b.
fetal cells
c.
viruses
d.
bacteria
e.
all of the above
 

 7. 

Restriction fragments of DNA are typically separated from one another by which process?
a.
filtering
b.
centrifugation
c.
gel electrophoresis
d.
PCR
e.
electron microscopy
 

 8. 

DNA fragments from a gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose paper during the procedure called Southern blotting. The purpose of transferring the DNA from a gel to a nitrocellulose paper is to
a.
permanently attach the DNA fragments to a substrate.
b.
separate the two complementary DNA strands.
c.
transfer only the DNA that is of interest.
d.
prepare the DNA for digestion with restriction enzymes.
e.
separate out the PCRs.
 

 9. 

Which of the following is least related to the others?
a.
Southern blotting
b.
denaturation
c.
nucleic acid probe
d.
RNA interference
e.
nucleic acid hybridization
 

 10. 

The "shotgun" approach used by Craig Venter to sequence the human genome skipped which of the following steps that were used by the Human Genome Project?
a.
genetic mapping
b.
physical mapping
c.
DNA sequencing
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 11. 

The completion of the Human Genome Project revealed that the human genome contains fewer genes than expected, not so many more than simpler organisms. How can this be reconciled with the greater complexity of humans relative to many other organisms?
a.
RNA transcripts of human genes are more likely to undergo alternative splicing.
b.
Post-translational processing adds diversity to the resulting polypeptides.
c.
Polypeptide domains are combined in a variety of ways.
d.
Gene expression patterns in humans are often more complex than those in other organisms.
e.
All of the above are correct.
 

 12. 

The function of a gene can be determined by
a.
comparing its sequence to genes of known function from other organisms.
b.
eliminating the function of the gene by in vitro mutagenesis and examining the consequences.
c.
eliminating the expression of the gene using RNA interference and examining the consequences.
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 13. 

Gene therapy
a.
has proven to be beneficial to HIV patients.
b.
involves replacement of a defective allele in sex cells.
c.
cannot be used to correct genetic disorders.
d.
had apparent success in treating disorders involving bone marrow cells.
e.
is a widely accepted procedure.
 

 14. 

A DNA profile is produced by
a.
treating selected segments of DNA with restriction enzymes.
b.
electrophoresis of restriction fragments.
c.
using a probe to locate specific nucleotide sequences.
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 



 
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