Name: 
 

Chapter 22



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

In the mid-1900s, the Soviet geneticist Lysenko exposed winter wheat plants to ever-colder temperatures, collected their seeds, and then exposed the seedlings to ever-colder temperatures. He repeated his attempts over the course of decades in an attempt to evolve cold-tolerant winter wheat. Lysenko's attempts in this regard were most in agreement with the ideas of
a.
Cuvier.
b.
Hutton.
c.
Lamarck.
d.
Darwin.
e.
Plato.
 

 2. 

Darwin's mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of Earth's ancient age?
a.
Georges Cuvier
b.
Charles Lyell
c.
Alfred Wallace
d.
Thomas Malthus
e.
John Henslow
 

 3. 

Both Darwin's and Lamarck's ideas regarding evolution suggest which of the following?
a.
All species were fixed at the time of creation.
b.
Acquired physical characteristics can be inherited.
c.
The giraffe's long neck is the result of artificial selection.
d.
The main mechanism of evolution is natural selection.
e.
The interaction of organisms with their environment is important in the evolutionary process.
 

 4. 

Which statement about natural selection is most correct?
a.
Adaptations beneficial in one habitat should generally be beneficial in all other habitats as well.
b.
Different species that together occupy the same habitat will adapt to that habitat by undergoing the same genetic changes.
c.
Adaptations beneficial at one time should generally be beneficial during all other times as well.
d.
Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring, and thus contribute more to the gene pool, than poorly adapted individuals.
e.
Natural selection is the sole means by which populations can evolve.
 

 5. 

In a hypothetical environment, fishes called pike-cichlids are visual predators of algae-eating fish, i.e., they locate their prey by sight. If a population of algae eaters experiences predation pressure from pike-cichlids, which of the following would least likely be observed in the algae-eater population over the course of many generations?
a.
Coloration of the algae eaters may become drab.
b.
The algae eaters may become nocturnal (active only at night).
c.
Female algae eaters may become larger, bearing broods composed of more, and larger, young.
d.
The algae eaters may become sexually mature at smaller overall body sizes.
e.
The algae eaters may become faster swimmers.
 

 6. 

Some members of a photosynthetic plant species are genetically resistant to an herbicide, while other members of the same species are not resistant to the herbicide. Maintaining resistance against the herbicide is metabolically expensive for the plants. Which combination of events should cause the most effective replacement of the non-herbicide-resistant strain of plants by the resistant strain?

1.
an abundance of sunny weather
2.
an abundance of cloudy weather
3.
the presence of the herbicide in the environment
4.
the absence of the herbicide from the environment
5.
the maintenance of the proper conditions for one generation
6.
the maintenance of the proper conditions for many generations
a.
2, 4, and 5
b.
2, 3, and 5
c.
1, 4, and 6
d.
1, 3, and 6
e.
2, 3, and 6
 

 7. 

If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that
a.
they live in very different habitats.
b.
they should share fewer homologous structures than two more closely related organisms.
c.
their chromosomes should be very similar.
d.
they shared a common ancestor relatively recently.
e.
they should be members of the same genus.
 

 8. 

Over evolutionary time, many cave-dwelling organisms have lost their eyes. Tapeworms have lost their digestive systems. Whales have lost their hind limbs. How can natural selection account for these losses?
a.
Natural selection cannot account for losses, only for innovations.
b.
It can account for these losses by the principle of use and disuse.
c.
Under particular circumstances that persisted for long periods, each of these structures presented greater costs than benefits.
d.
These organisms had the misfortune to experience harmful mutations, which caused the loss of these structures.
e.
B and D only
 

 9. 

What would be the best technique for determining the evolutionary relationships among several closely related species, each of which still contains living members?
a.
examining the fossil record
b.
comparison of homologous structures
c.
comparative embryology
d.
comparative anatomy
e.
DNA or RNA analysis
 

 10. 

Ichthyosaurs were aquatic dinosaurs. Fossils show us that they had dorsal fins and tails just as fish do, even though their closest relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor aquatic tails. The dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs and fish are
a.
homologous.
b.
examples of convergent evolution.
c.
adaptations to a common environment.
d.
A and C only
e.
B and C only
 



 
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