Name: 
 

Chapter 23



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which definition of evolution would have been most foreign to Charles Darwin during his lifetime?
a.
change in gene frequency in gene pools
b.
descent with modification
c.
the gradual change of a population's heritable traits over generations
d.
populations becoming better adapted to their environments over the course of generations
e.
the appearance of new varieties and new species with the passage of time
 

 2. 

All of the following are criteria for maintaining Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium involving two alleles except
a.
the frequency of all genotypes must be equal.
b.
there should be no natural selection.
c.
matings must be random.
d.
populations must be large.
e.
gene flow from other populations must be zero.
 

 3. 

In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.7. What is the percentage of the population that is homozygous for this allele?
a.
3
b.
9
c.
30
d.
42
e.
49
 

 4. 

In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of allele a is 0.2. What is the frequency of individuals with Aa genotype?
a.
0.20
b.
0.32
c.
0.42
d.
0.80
e.
Genotype frequency cannot be determined from the information provided.
 
 
Refer to the information below to answer the following questions.

You are studying three populations of birds. Population 1 has ten birds, of which one is brown (a recessive trait) and nine are red. Population 2 has 100 birds. In that population, ten of the birds are brown. Population 3 has 30 birds, and three of them are brown. Use the following options to answer the questions:

A.
Population 1
B.
Population 2
C.
Population 3
D.
They are all the same.
E.
It is impossible to tell from the information given.
 

 5. 

In which population is the frequency of the allele for brown feathers highest?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 6. 

Which population is most likely to be subject to the bottleneck effect?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 7. 

In a large, sexually reproducing population, the frequency of an allele changes from 0.6 to 0.2. From this change, one can most logically assume that, in this environment,
a.
the allele is neutral.
b.
the allele mutates readily.
c.
random processes have changed allelic frequencies.
d.
there is no sexual selection.
e.
the allele reduces fitness.
 

 8. 

Natural selection is most nearly the same as
a.
diploidy.
b.
gene flow.
c.
genetic drift.
d.
nonrandom mating.
e.
differential reproductive success.
 

 9. 

Through time, the movement of people on Earth has steadily increased. This has altered the course of human evolution by increasing
a.
nonrandom reproduction.
b.
geographic isolation.
c.
genetic drift.
d.
mutations.
e.
gene flow.
 

 10. 

When we say that an individual organism has a greater fitness than another individual, we specifically mean
that the organism
a.
lives longer than others of its species.
b.
competes for resources more successfully than others of its species.
c.
mates more frequently than others of its species.
d.
utilizes resources more efficiently than other species occupying similar niches.
e.
leaves more viable offspring than others of its species.
 

 11. 

Which of the following statements best summarizes evolution as it is viewed today?
a.
It is goal-directed.
b.
It represents the result of selection for acquired characteristics.
c.
It is synonymous with the process of gene flow.
d.
It is the descent of humans from the present-day great apes.
e.
It is the differential survival and reproduction of the most fit phenotypes.
 
 
Choose among these options to answer the following questions. Each option may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.
random selection
B.
directional selection
C.
stabilizing selection
D.
disruptive selection
E.
sexual selection
 

 12. 

An African butterfly species exists in two strikingly different color patterns.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 13. 

Brightly colored peacocks mate more frequently than do drab peacocks.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 14. 

Most Swiss starlings produce four to five eggs in each clutch.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 15. 

Fossil evidence indicates that horses have gradually increased in size over geologic time.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 16. 

Which of the following is most likely to have been produced by sexual selection?
a.
a male lion's mane
b.
bright colors of female flowers
c.
the ability of desert animals to concentrate their urine
d.
different sizes of male and female pinecones
e.
camouflage coloration in animals
 

 17. 

A proficient engineer can easily design skeletal structures that are more functional than those currently found in the forelimbs of such diverse mammals as horses, whales, and bats. That the actual forelimbs of these mammals do not seem to be optimally arranged is because
a.
natural selection has not had sufficient time to create the optimal design in each case, but will do so given enough time.
b.
natural selection operates in ways that are beyond the capability of the human mind to comprehend.
c.
in many cases, phenotype is not merely determined by genotype, but by the environment as well.
d.
though we may not consider the fit between the current skeletal arrangements and their functions excellent, we should not doubt that natural selection ultimately produces the best design.
e.
natural selection is generally limited to modifying structures that were present in previous generations and in previous species.
 



 
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