Name: 
 

Chapter 24



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following statements about species, as defined by the biological species concept, is (are) correct?
I.
Biological species are defined by reproductive isolation.
II.
Biological species are the model used for grouping extinct forms of life.
III.
The biological species is the largest unit of population in which successful reproduction is possible.
a.
I only
b.
II only
c.
I and III
d.
II and III
e.
I, II, and III
 

 2. 

A biologist discovers two populations of wolf spiders whose members appear identical. Members of one population are found in the leaf litter deep within a woods. Members of the other population are found in the grass at the edge of the woods. The biologist decides to designate the members of the two populations as two separate species. Which species concept is this biologist most closely utilizing?
a.
ecological
b.
biological
c.
morphological
d.
paleontological
e.
phylogenetic
 

 3. 

Which of the following must occur during a period of geographic isolation in order for two sibling species to remain genetically distinct following their geographic reunion in the same home range?
a.
prezygotic barriers
b.
postzygotic barriers
c.
ecological isolation
d.
reproductive isolation
e.
temporal isolation
 
 
The questions below are based on the following description:

Several closely related frog species of the genus Rana can be found in the forests of the southeastern United States. The species boundaries are maintained by reproductive barriers. In each case, match the various descriptions of frogs below with the appropriate reproductive barrier listed. Options may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.
behavioral
B.
gametic
C.
habitat
D.
temporal
E.
mechanical
 

 4. 

Males of one species sing only during rainy conditions; males of another species sing only when it is not raining.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 5. 

One species lives only in tree holes; another species lives only in streams.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 6. 

Females of one species choose mates based on song quality; females of another species choose mates on the basis of size.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 7. 

One species mates for two weeks in early April; another species mates for three weeks in early May.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 8. 

Males of one species are too small to perform amplexus (an action that stimulates ovulation) with females of all other species.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 9. 

The Hawaiian islands are a great showcase of evolution because of intense
a.
ecological isolation and sympatric speciation.
b.
adaptive radiation and allopatric speciation.
c.
allopolyploidy and sympatric speciation.
d.
cross-specific mating and reinforcement.
e.
hybrid vigor and allopatric speciation.
 

 10. 

A rapid method of speciation that has been important in the history of flowering plants is
a.
genetic drift.
b.
paedomorphosis.
c.
a mutation in the gene controlling the timing of flowering.
d.
behavioral isolation.
e.
polyploidy.
 

 11. 

Beetle pollinators of a particular plant are attracted to its flowers by their bright orange color. The beetles not only pollinate the flowers, but they mate while inside of the flowers. A mutant version of the plant with red flowers becomes more common with the passage of time. A particular variant of the beetle prefers the red flowers to the orange flowers. Over time, these two beetle variants diverge from each other to such an extent that interbreeding is no longer possible. What kind of speciation has occurred in this example, and what has driven it?
a.
allopatric speciation, ecological isolation
b.
sympatric speciation, habitat differentiation
c.
allopatric speciation, behavioral isolation
d.
sympatric speciation, sexual selection
e.
sympatric speciation, allopolyploidy
 

 12. 

According to the concept of punctuated equilibrium, the "sudden" appearance of a new species in the fossil record means that
a.
the species is now extinct.
b.
speciation occurred instantaneously.
c.
speciation occurred in one generation.
d.
speciation occurred rapidly in geologic time.
e.
the species will consequently have a relatively short existence, compared with other species.
 

 13. 

Which of these fly organs, as they exist in current fly populations, best fits the description of an exaptation?
a.
wings
b.
halteres
c.
mouthparts
d.
thoraxes
e.
walking appendages
 

 14. 

If one organ is an exaptation of another organ, then what must be true of these two organs?
a.
They are both vestigial organs.
b.
They are homologous organs.
c.
They are undergoing convergent evolution.
d.
They are found together in the same hybrid species.
e.
They have the same function.
 

 15. 

A hypothetical mutation in a squirrel population produces organisms with eight legs rather than four. Further, these mutant squirrels survive, successfully invade new habitats, and eventually give rise to a new species. The initial event giving rise to extra legs would be a good example of
a.
punctuated equilibrium.
b.
species selection.
c.
habitat selection.
d.
changes in homeotic genes.
e.
allometry.
 



 
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