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Chapter 25



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which combination of the following species characteristics would cause the greatest likelihood of fossilization in sedimentary rock?

I.
The species was abundant.
II.
The species was widespread.
III.
The species had hard body parts.
IV.
The species was adapted to desert life.
V.
The species had a long duration in geologic time.
a.
III only
b.
III and IV
c.
I, II, and III
d.
I, II, and V
e.
I, II, III, and V
 

 2. 

Which of the following pairs are homologous?
a.
bat wing and human hand
b.
owl wing and hornet wing
c.
porcupine quill and cactus spine
d.
bat forelimb and bird wing
e.
Australian mole and North American mole
 

 3. 

Some molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family (Ursidae) but place the lesser panda in the raccoon family (Procyonidae). The morphological similarities of these two species must therefore be due to
a.
inheritance of acquired characteristics.
b.
sexual selection.
c.
inheritance of shared derived characters.
d.
convergent evolution.
e.
possession of shared primitive characters.
 

 4. 

The correct sequence from the most to the least comprehensive of the taxonomic levels listed here is
a.
family, phylum, class, kingdom, order, species, and genus.
b.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
c.
kingdom, phylum, order, class, family, genus, and species.
d.
phylum, kingdom, order, class, species, family, and genus.
e.
phylum, family, class, order, kingdom, genus, and species.
 

 5. 

If organisms A, B, and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms D, E, and F belong to the same order but to different families, which of the following pairs of organisms would be expected to show the greatest degree of structural homology?
a.
A and B
b.
A and C
c.
B and D
d.
C and F
e.
D and F
 

 6. 

If this evolutionary tree is an accurate depiction of relatedness, then which of the following should be correct?
1.
The entire tree is based on maximum parsimony.
2.
If all species depicted here make up a taxon, this taxon is monophyletic.
3.
The last common ancestor of species B and C occurred more recently than the last common
 
ancestor of species D and E.
4.
Species A is the direct ancestor of both species B and species C.
5.
The species present at position 3 is ancestral to C, D, and E.
a.
2 and 5
b.
1 and 3
c.
3 and 4
d.
2, 3, and 4
e.
1, 2, and 3
 

 7. 

The camera-type eyes of octopuses are very complicated and have many of the same features as the camera-type eyes of vertebrates. Yet, the eyes of invertebrates and vertebrates are not homologous. This situation is an example of
a.
misalignment of sequences.
b.
homoplasy.
c.
substitution mutations.
d.
gene duplication.
e.
homogeneity.
 

 8. 

When using a cladistic approach to systematics, which of the following is considered most important for classification?
a.
shared primitive characters
b.
analogous primitive characters
c.
shared derived characters
d.
the degree of evolutionary divergence
e.
overall phenotypic similarity
 

 9. 

A researcher wants to determine the genetic relatedness of several breeds of dog (Canis familiaris). The researcher should compare homologous sequences of ____ that are known to be ____.
a.
carbohydrates; poorly conserved
b.
fatty acids; highly conserved
c.
lipids; poorly conserved
d.
proteins or nucleic acids; poorly conserved
e.
amino acids; highly conserved
 

 10. 

When sufficient heat is applied, double-stranded DNA denatures into two single-stranded molecules as the heat breaks all of the hydrogen bonds. In an experiment, molecules of single-stranded DNA from species X are separately hybridized with putatively homologous single-stranded DNA molecules from five species (A-E). The hybridized DNAs are then heated, and the temperature at which complete denaturation occurs is recorded. Based on the data below, which species is probably most closely related to species X?


Species
Temperature at Which
Hybridized DNA Denatures
A
chpt25_files/i0110000.jpg
B
85°C
C
74°C
D
60°C
E
61°C
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 



 
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