Name: 
 

Chapter 26 Online Review Questions



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The first genetic material was most likely a(n)
a.
DNA polymer.
b.
DNA oligonucleotide.
c.
RNA polymer.
d.
protein.
e.
protein enzyme.
 

 2. 

Which gas was probably least abundant in Earth's early atmosphere?
a.
O2
b.
CO
c.
CH4
d.
H2O
e.
NH3
 

 3. 

Which putative early Earth condition did Miller and Urey's experimental apparatus not attempt to simulate directly?
a.
presence of water vapor
b.
intense lightning storms
c.
warm seas
d.
intense UV bombardment
e.
reducing atmosphere
 

 4. 

Which of the following has not yet been synthesized in laboratory experiments studying the origin of life?
a.
liposomes
b.
liposomes with selectively permeable membranes
c.
oligopeptides and other oligomers
d.
protobionts that use DNA to program protein synthesis
e.
amino acids
 

 5. 

Which of the following is the correct sequence of these events in the origin of life?
I.
Formation of protobionts
II.
Synthesis of organic monomers
III.
Synthesis of organic polymers
a.
I, II, III
b.
I, III, II
c.
II, III, I
d.
III, I, II
e.
III, II, I
 

 6. 

Although absolute distinctions between the "most evolved" protobiont and the first living cell are unclear, biologists generally agree that one major difference is that protobionts could not
a.
possess a selectively permeable membrane boundary.
b.
perform osmosis.
c.
grow in size.
d.
perform controlled, precise reproduction.
e.
absorb compounds from the external environment.
 

 7. 

What probably accounts for the switch to DNA-based genetic systems during the evolution of life on Earth?
a.
DNA is chemically more stable and replicates with fewer errors (mutations) than RNA.
b.
Only DNA can replicate during cell division.
c.
RNA is too involved with translation of proteins and cannot provide multiple functions.
d.
DNA forms the rod-shaped chromosomes necessary for cell division.
e.
Replication of RNA occurs too quickly.
 

 8. 

If the half-life of carbon-14 is about 5,730 years, then a fossil that has one-eighth the normal proportion of carbon-14 to carbon-12 is probably ____ years old.
a.
1,400
b.
2,800
c.
11,200
d.
16,800
e.
22,400
 

 9. 

Which of the following statements provides the strongest evidence that prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes?
a.
the primitive structure of plants
b.
meteorites that have struck Earth
c.
abiotic laboratory experiments that produced liposomes
d.
Liposomes resemble prokaryotic cells.
e.
The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes.
 

 10. 

Recent evidence indicates that the first major diversification of multicellular eukaryotes may have coincided in time with the
a.
origin of prokaryotes.
b.
switch to an oxidizing atmosphere.
c.
melting that ended the "snowball Earth" period.
d.
origin of multicellular organisms.
e.
massive eruptions of deep-sea vents.
 

 11. 

In order for a beneficial mutation to be transmitted across generations, the mutation must occur in
a.
a zygote.
b.
a sperm cell.
c.
an egg cell.
d.
a mother cell about to undergo meiosis.
e.
any of the above.
 
 
The following questions refer to the list below, which uses the five-kingdom classification system.
1.
Plantae
2.
Fungi
3.
Animalia
4.
Protista
5.
Monera
 

 12. 

Which obsolete kingdom includes prokaryotic organisms?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
5
 

 13. 

Members of which kingdom have cell walls and are all heterotrophic?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
5
 

 14. 

Which kingdom has been replaced with two domains?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
5
 

 15. 

Which eukaryotic kingdom is polyphyletic and therefore not acceptable, based on cladistics?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
5
 

 16. 

Which kingdoms include free-living photosynthetic organisms?
a.
1 and 5
b.
2 and 4
c.
1, 2, and 5
d.
1, 4, and 5
e.
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5
 



 
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