Name: 
 

Chapter 27



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

If penicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits enzymes from catalyzing the synthesis of peptidoglycan, then which prokaryotes should be most vulnerable to inhibition by penicillin?
a.
mycoplasmas
b.
gram-positive bacteria
c.
archaea
d.
gram-negative bacteria
e.
spore-bearing bacteria
 

 2. 

Which of the following is the correct order, from most external to most internal?
1.
cell wall
2.
plasma membrane
3.
capsule
a.
1, 2, 3
b.
1, 3, 2
c.
2, 1, 3
d.
3, 2, 1
e.
3, 1, 2
 

 3. 

Which two structures play direct roles in permitting bacteria to adhere to each other, or to other surfaces?
1.
capsules
2.
endospores
3.
fimbriae
4.
plasmids
5.
flagella
a.
1 and 2
b.
1 and 3
c.
2 and 3
d.
3 and 4
e.
3 and 5
 

 4. 

If a bacterium regenerates from an endospore that does not have all of the plasmids contained in its parent cell, it will probably
a.
lack "contingency" functions.
b.
lack a cell wall.
c.
lack a chromosome.
d.
gain extra base pairs on its chromosome.
e.
be unable to survive in its normal environment.
 

 5. 

Which of the following statements about prokaryotes is correct?
a.
Bacterial cells conjugate to mutually exchange genetic material.
b.
Their genetic material is confined within a nuclear envelope.
c.
They divide by binary fission, without mitosis or meiosis.
d.
The persistence of bacteria throughout evolutionary time is due to genetic similarity.
e.
Genetic variation in bacteria is not known to occur, nor should it occur, because of their asexual mode of reproduction.
 
 
The following questions refer to structures found in a gram-positive prokaryotic cell. Answers (A-E) may be used once, more than once or not at all.

A.
endospore
B.
sex pilus
C.
flagellum
D.
cell wall
E.
capsule
 

 6. 

requires ATP to function, and permits some species to respond to taxes.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 7. 

an important source of endotoxin in gram-negative species
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 8. 

If this structure connects the cytoplasm of two bacteria, one of these cells may gain new genetic material.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 9. 

This structure contains a copy of the chromosome, along with a small amount of dehydrated cytoplasm, within a tough wall.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 
 
Use the list below of types of bacterial metabolism to answer the following questions. Pick the term that best matches the statement. Responses may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
A.
photoautotrophs
B.
photoheterotrophs
C.
chemoautotrophs
D.
chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition
E.
parasitic chemoheterotrophs
 

 10. 

responsible for many human diseases
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 11. 

cyanobacteria
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 12. 

use light energy to synthesize organic compounds from CO2
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 13. 

obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances; energy that is used, in part, to fix CO2
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 14. 

use light energy to generate ATP but do not release oxygen
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 15. 

responsible for high levels of O2 in Earth's atmosphere
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 16. 

Mitochondria are descendants of alpha proteobacteria. They are, however, no longer able to lead independent lives because most genes originally present on their chromosome are now located in the nuclear genome. What phenomenon most directly accounts for the movement of these genes?
a.
horizontal gene transfer
b.
binary fission
c.
conjugation
d.
meiosis
e.
plasmolysis
 

 17. 

Carl Woese of the University of Illinois and his collaborators identified two major branches of prokaryotic evolution. What was the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two domains?
a.
microscopic examination of staining characteristics of the cell wall
b.
metabolic characteristics such as the production of methane gas
c.
metabolic characteristics such as chemoautotrophy and photosynthesis
d.
molecular characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequences
e.
ecological characteristics such as the ability to survive in extreme environments
 

 18. 

Which of the following statements about the domain of Archaea is false?
a.
Based on DNA analysis, archaea are probably more closely related to eukaryotes than they are to bacteria.
b.
Some archaea can reduce CO2 to methane.
c.
Archaean cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan.
d.
Some archaea can inhabit solutions that are nearly 30% salt.
e.
Some archaea are adapted to waters with temperatures above the boiling point.
 

 19. 

Which prokaryotes should be expected to be most strongly resistant to plasmolysis in hypertonic environments?
a.
extreme halophiles
b.
extreme thermophiles
c.
methanogens
d.
cyanobacteria
e.
nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in root nodules
 

 20. 

Which of the following would most likely occur if all prokaryotes were suddenly to perish?
a.
All life would eventually perish due to disease.
b.
Many organisms would perish as nutrient recycling underwent dramatic reduction.
c.
All life would eventually perish because of increased global warming due to the greenhouse effect.
d.
Only the organisms that feed directly on prokaryotes would perish.
e.
Very little change would occur because prokaryotes are not of significant ecological importance.
 



 
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