Name: 
 

Chapter 31



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter, what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter?
a.
haustoria
b.
soredia
c.
exoenzymes
d.
increased oxygen levels
e.
larger bacterial populations
 

 2. 

What is the primary role of a mushroom's underground mycelium?
a.
absorbing nutrients
b.
anchoring
c.
sexual reproduction
d.
asexual reproduction
e.
protection
 

 3. 

In septate fungi, what structures allow cytoplasmic streaming to distribute needed nutrients, synthesized compounds, and organelles throughout the hyphae?
a.
chitinous layers in cell walls
b.
pores in septal walls
c.
complex microtubular cytoskeletons
d.
two nuclei
e.
tight junctions that form in septal walls between cells
 

 4. 

Both fungus-farming ants and their fungi can synthesize the same structural polysaccharide from the chapter_31_files/i0050000.jpg-glucose molecules that are derived from the digestion of plant leaves. What is the synthesized polysaccharide?
a.
amylopectin
b.
chitin
c.
cellulose
d.
lignin
e.
glycogen
 

 5. 

Which of the following terms is not properly associated with the fungi as a kingdom?
a.
decomposers
b.
sexual and asexual spores
c.
ecologically important
d.
polyphyletic
e.
absorptive nutrition
 

 6. 

In fungi, karyogamy does not immediately follow plasmogamy, which
a.
means that sexual reproduction can occur in specialized structures.
b.
results in more genetic variation during sexual reproduction.
c.
allows fungi to reproduce asexually most of the time.
d.
results in heterokaryotic cells.
e.
is strong support for the claim that fungi are not truly eukaryotic.
 

 7. 

What is a fungal process that has the opposite effect on chromosome number than the effect of meiosis?
a.
mitosis
b.
plasmogamy
c.
crossing over
d.
binary fission
e.
karyogamy
 

 8. 

What is the ploidy of a single mature Neurospora ascospore?
a.
haploid
b.
diploid
c.
triploid
d.
tetraploid
e.
polyploid
 

 9. 

A chemical secreted by female Bombyx moths helps the male of the species locate her, at which time sexual reproduction may occur. This chemical is most similar in function to which chemicals used by certain fungi?
a.
chitin
b.
exoenzymes
c.
lysergic acids
d.
aflatoxins
e.
pheromones
 
 
Match the phyla below with the descriptions that follow. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.
Zygomycota
B.
Ascomycota
C.
Basidiomycota
D.
Glomeromycota
E.
Chytridiomycota
 

 10. 

This phylum contains organisms that most closely resemble the common ancestor of fungi and animals.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 11. 

Members of this phylum produce two kinds of haploid spores, one kind being asexually produced conidia.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 12. 

You are given an organism to identify. It has a fruiting body that contains many structures with eight haploid spores lined up in a row. What kind of a fungus is this?
a.
zygomycete
b.
ascomycete
c.
deuteromycete
d.
chytrid
e.
basidiomycete
 

 13. 

How are mushrooms and toadstools classified?
a.
basidiomycetes
b.
ascomycetes
c.
deuteromycetes
d.
zygomycetes
e.
chytrids
 

 14. 

Arrange the following from largest to smallest, assuming that they all come from the same fungus.
1.
basidiocarp
2.
basidium
3.
basidiospore
4.
mycelium
5.
gill
a.
4, 5, 1, 2, 3
b.
5, 1, 4, 2, 3
c.
5, 1, 4, 3, 2
d.
5, 1, 3, 2, 4
e.
4, 1, 5, 2, 3
 

 15. 

The symbiotic associations involving roots and soil fungi are considered
a.
parasitic.
b.
mutualistic.
c.
commensal.
d.
harmful to the plant partner.
e.
the beginning stages of the formation of lichens.
 

 16. 

Which of the following best describes the physical relationship of the partners involved in lichens?
a.
Fungal cells are enclosed within algal cells.
b.
Lichen cells are enclosed within fungal cells.
c.
Photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae.
d.
The fungi grow on rocks and trees and are covered by algae.
e.
Algal cells and fungal cells mix together without any apparent structure.
 

 17. 

Both fungus-derived antibiotics and hallucinogens used by humans probably evolved in fungi as a means to
a.
reduce competition for nutrients.
b.
help humanity survive.
c.
promote their ingestion of foodstuffs.
d.
eliminate other fungi.
e.
discourage animal predators.
 



 
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