Name: 
 

Chapter 34



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following is not a shared characteristic of all chordates?
a.
pharyngeal clefts
b.
post-anal tail
c.
notochord
d.
dorsal, hollow nerve cord
e.
four-chambered heart
 

 2. 

What do hagfishes and lampreys have in common with the extinct conodonts?
a.
lungs
b.
the jawless condition
c.
bony vertebrae
d.
their mode of feeding
e.
swim bladders
 

 3. 

In which extant class did jaws occur earliest?
a.
Cephalaspidomorphi
b.
Chondrichthyes
c.
Actinopterygii
d.
Dipnoi
e.
Placodermi
 

 4. 

All of these might have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans, except
a.
a mineralized, bony skeleton.
b.
scales.
c.
lungs.
d.
gills.
e.
a swim bladder.
 

 5. 

To which of these are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?
a.
osteichthyan scales
b.
reptilian scales
c.
mammalian scales
d.
bird scales
e.
chondrichthyan teeth
 

 6. 

Which group's members had (have) both lungs and gills during their adult lives?
a.
sharks, skates, and rays
b.
lungfishes
c.
cephalochordates
d.
paramphibians
e.
ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs
 

 7. 

Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?
a.
the amniotic egg
b.
the ability to maintain a constant body temperature
c.
two pairs of appendages
d.
claws
e.
a four-chambered heart
 

 8. 

Examination of the fossils of Archaeopteryx reveals that, in common with extant birds, it had
a.
a long tail containing vertebrae.
b.
feathers.
c.
teeth.
d.
both A and B
e.
A, B, and C
 

 9. 

What is the single unique characteristic that distinguishes extant birds from other extant animals?
a.
a hinged jaw
b.
feathers
c.
an amniotic egg
d.
flight
e.
a gizzard
 

 10. 

Structures that are made of keratin include which of the following?
a.
avian feathers
b.
reptilian scales
c.
mammalian hair
d.
A and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 11. 

A sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in extant
a.
birds.
b.
mammals.
c.
non-avian reptiles.
d.
both A and B
e.
A, B, and C
 

 12. 

Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?
a.
Look for the presence of milk-producing glands.
b.
Look for the mammalian characteristics of a four-chambered heart and a diaphragm.
c.
Because mammals are eutherians, look for evidence of a placenta.
d.
Use molecular analysis to look for the protein keratin.
e.
Examine the teeth.
 

 13. 

Which of the following classifications do not apply to both dogs and humans?
a.
class Mammalia
b.
order Primates
c.
phylum Chordata
d.
kingdom Animalia
e.
subphylum Vertebrata
 

 14. 

How are primates different from all other mammals?
a.
placental embryonic development
b.
hairy bodies
c.
arboreal lifestyles
d.
ability to produce milk
e.
opposable thumbs in many species
 
 
For the following items, match the vertebrate groups below with the descriptions that follow. Each choice may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.
amphibians
B.
non-avian reptiles
C.
chondrichthyans
D.
mammals
E.
avian reptiles
 

 15. 

their scales closely resemble teeth in both structure and origin
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 16. 

internal fertilization, amniotic egg, skin that resists drying, heavy bones
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 17. 

three major groups: egg-laying, pouched, and placental
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 18. 

may have lungs, or gills, and may use skin as a respiratory surface
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 19. 

The adaptation to arboreal life by early human ancestors can explain, at least in part, all of the following human characteristics except
a.
limber shoulder joints.
b.
dexterous hands with opposable thumbs.
c.
excellent eye-hand coordination.
d.
enhanced depth perception.
e.
reduced body hair.
 

 20. 

Which of the following are not considered hominoids?
a.
gibbons
b.
gorillas
c.
rhesus monkeys
d.
orangutans
e.
chimpanzees
 



 
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