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Chapter 45: Endocrine Chapter Review



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following is (are) true?
a.
Hormones regulate cellular functions, and negative feedback regulates hormone levels.
b.
The circulating level of a hormone is held constant through a series of positive feedback loops.
c.
Both lipid-soluble hormones and water-soluble hormones bind to intracellular protein receptors.
d.
Only A and D are true.
e.
A, B, and C are true.
 

 2. 

Which of the following is a local regulator responsible for activating an enzyme that relaxes smooth muscle cells?
a.
nitric oxide
b.
prostaglandin F
c.
epinephrine
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 3. 

How is a cell's response to a water-soluble hormone amplified?
a.
regulation of intracellular hormone levels
b.
regulation of cell volume
c.
changes in the intracellular levels of cytokines
d.
regulatory proteins present inside of the cell
e.
regulation of the number of surface receptors
 

 4. 

Why would a liver cell and a lung cell respond differently to the same steroid hormone?
a.
They have different receptor proteins within the cell.
b.
They have different acceptor proteins on the chromatin.
c.
Steroid hormones usually transmit signals that are antagonistic.
d.
The acceptor proteins are associated with different genes in the two kinds of cells.
e.
The hormone-receptor complex is transcribed and processed differently in the two kinds of cells.
 

 5. 

Hormone X produces its effect in its target cells via the cAMP second messenger system. Which of the following will produce the greatest effect in the cell?
a.
a molecule of hormone X applied to the extracellular fluid surrounding the cell
b.
a molecule of hormone X injected into the cytoplasm of the cell
c.
a molecule of cAMP applied to the extracellular fluid surrounding the cell
d.
a molecule of cAMP injected into the cytoplasm of the cell
e.
a molecule of activated, cAMP-dependent protein kinase injected into the cytoplasm of the cell
 

 6. 

The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by means of
a.
releasing hormones.
b.
second messengers.
c.
third messengers.
d.
antibodies.
e.
pyrogens.
 

 7. 

Oxytocin and ADH are produced by the ____ and stored in the ____.
a.
hypothalamus; neurohypophysis
b.
adenohypophysis; kidneys
c.
anterior pituitary; thyroid
d.
adrenal cortex; adrenal medulla
e.
posterior pituitary; anterior pituitary
 

 8. 

Which combination of hormones helps a mother to produce milk and nurse her baby?
a.
prolactin and calcitrone
b.
oxytocin and prolactin
c.
follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
d.
luteinizing hormone and oxytocin
e.
oxytocin, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone
 

 9. 

Which hormone exerts antagonistic action to PTH (parathyroid hormone)?
a.
thyroxine
b.
epinephrine
c.
growth hormone
d.
calcitonin
e.
glucagon
 

 10. 

Blood samples taken from an individual who had been fasting for 24 hours would have which of the following?
a.
high levels of insulin
b.
high levels of glucagon
c.
low levels of insulin
d.
low levels of glucagon
e.
both B and C
 

 11. 

The endocrine system and the nervous system are chemically related. Which of the following substances best illustrates this relationship?
a.
estrogen
b.
calcitonin
c.
norepinephrine
d.
calcium
e.
ecdysone
 

 12. 

If the adrenal cortex were removed, which group of hormones would be most affected?
a.
steroid
b.
peptide
c.
tropic
d.
amino acid-derived
e.
paracrine
 

 13. 

Which of the following statements about the adrenal gland is correct?
a.
During stress, TSH stimulates the adrenal cortex and medulla to secrete acetylcholine.
b.
During stress, the alpha cells of islets secrete insulin and simultaneously the beta cells of the islets secrete glucagon.
c.
During stress, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex, and neurons of the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the adrenal medulla.
d.
At all times, the anterior portion secretes ACTH, while the posterior portion secretes oxytocin.
e.
At all times, the adrenal gland monitors calcium levels in the blood and regulates calcium by secreting the two antagonistic hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
 

 14. 

Which of the following pairs of hormones do not have antagonistic effects?
a.
insulin and glucagon
b.
thyroid-releasing hormone and T3 and T4
c.
parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
d.
follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
e.
aldosterone and atrial natriuretic factor
 

 15. 

Synthetic versions of which of the following hormones are being used as insecticides to prevent insects from maturing into reproducing adults?
a.
ecdysone
b.
juvenile hormone
c.
oxytocin
d.
brain hormone
e.
prothoracic hormone
 



 
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