Name: 
 

Chapter 51 Online Quiz



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 
 
Use the information below to answer the following questions.

When a female cat comes into heat, she urinates more frequently and in a large number of places. Male cats from the neighborhood congregate near urine deposits and fight with each other.
 

 1. 

Which of the following is a proximate cause of this behavior of increased urination?
a.
It announces to the males that she is in heat.
b.
Female cats that did this in the past attracted more males.
c.
It is a result of hormonal changes associated with her reproductive cycle.
d.
The female cat learned the behavior from observing other cats.
e.
All of the above are ultimate causes of behavior.
 

 2. 

Which of the following would be an ultimate cause of the male cats' response to the female's urinating behavior?
a.
The males have learned to recognize the specific odor of the urine of a female in heat.
b.
By smelling the odor, various neurons in the males' brains were stimulated.
c.
Male cats respond to the odor because it is a means of locating females in heat.
d.
Male cats' hormones are triggered by the odor released by the female.
e.
The odor serves as a releaser for the instinctive behavior of the males.
 

 3. 

Which of the following statements is (are) true of fixed action patterns?
a.
They are highly stereotyped, instinctive behaviors.
b.
They are triggered by sign stimuli in the environment and, once begun, are continued to completion.
c.
An inappropriate stimulus can sometimes trigger them.
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 4. 

A type of learning that can occur only during a brief period of early life and results in a behavior that is difficult to modify through later experiences is called
a.
insight.
b.
imprinting.
c.
habituation.
d.
operant conditioning.
e.
trial-and-error learning.
 

 5. 

Imagine that you are designing an experiment aimed at determining whether the initiation of migratory behavior is largely under genetic control. Of the following options, the best way to proceed is to
a.
observe different genetically distinct populations in the field and see if they have different migratory habits.
b.
perform within-population matings with birds from different populations that have different migratory habits. Do this in the laboratory and see if offspring display parental migratory behavior.
c.
bring animals into the laboratory and determine the conditions under which they become restless and attempt to migrate.
d.
perform within-population matings with birds from different populations that have different migratory habits. Rear the offspring in the absence of their parents and observe offspring migratory behavior.
e.
All of the above are equally productive ways to approach the question.
 

 6. 

Which statement below about mating behavior is incorrect?
a.
Some aspects of courtship behavior may have evolved from agonistic interactions.
b.
Courtship interactions ensure that the participating individuals are nonthreatening and of the proper species, sex, and physiological condition for mating.
c.
The degree to which evolution affects mating relationships depends on the degree of prenatal and postnatal input the parents are required to make.
d.
The mating relationship in most mammals is monogamous, to ensure the reproductive success of the pair.
e.
Polygamous relationships most often involve a single male and many females, but in some species this is reversed.
 

 7. 

Loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or not information is called
a.
adapting.
b.
spacing.
c.
conditioning.
d.
imprinting.
e.
habituation.
 

 8. 

Learning in which an associated stimulus may be used to elicit the same behavioral response as the original sign stimulus is called
a.
concept formation.
b.
trial-and-error.
c.
classical conditioning.
d.
operant conditioning.
e.
habituation.
 

 9. 

Which of the following statements about learning and behavior is incorrect?
a.
Operant conditioning involves associating a behavior with a reward or punishment.
b.
Associative learning involves linking one stimulus with another.
c.
Classical conditioning involves trial-and-error learning.
d.
Behavior can be modified by learning, but some apparent learning is due to maturation.
e.
Imprinting is a learned behavior with an innate component acquired during a sensitive period.
 
 
Use the terms below to answer the following questions. Match the term that best fits each of the following descriptions of behavior. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.
sign stimulus
B.
habituation
C.
imprinting
D.
classical conditioning
E.
operant conditioning
 

 10. 

A type of bird similar to a chickadee learn to peck through the cardboard tops of milk bottles left on doorsteps and drink the cream from the top.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 11. 

Male insects attempt to mate with orchids but eventually stop responding to them.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 12. 

A salmon goes back to its home stream to spawn.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 13. 

A stickleback fish will attack a fish model as long as the model has red coloring.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 14. 

Parental protective behavior in turkeys is triggered by the cheeping sound of young chicks.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 15. 

A guinea pig loves the lettuce kept in the refrigerator and squeals each time the refrigerator door opens.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 16. 

Sparrows are receptive to learning songs only during a sensitive period.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 17. 

Some dogs love attention, and Frodo the beagle learns that if he barks, he gets attention. Which of the following might you use to describe this behavior?
a.
The dog is displaying an instinctive fixed action pattern.
b.
The dog is performing a social behavior.
c.
The dog is trying to protect its territory.
d.
The dog has been classically conditioned.
e.
The dog's behavior is a result of operant conditioning.
 

 18. 

Modern behavioral concepts relate the cost of a behavior to its benefit. Under which relationship might a behavior be performed?
a.
cost is greater than the benefit
b.
cost is less than the benefit
c.
cost is equal to the benefit
d.
A and C only
e.
B and C only
 

 19. 

The presence of altruistic behavior in animals is most likely due to kin selection, a theory maintaining that
a.
aggression between sexes promotes the survival of the fittest individuals.
b.
genes enhance survival of copies of themselves by directing organisms to assist others who share those genes.
c.
companionship is advantageous to animals because in the future they can help each other.
d.
critical thinking abilities are normal traits for animals and they have arisen, like other traits, through natural selection.
e.
natural selection has generally favored the evolution of exaggerated aggressive and submissive behaviors to resolve conflict without grave harm to participants.
 

 20. 

The central concept of sociobiology is that
a.
human behavior is rigidly predetermined.
b.
the behavior of an individual cannot be modified.
c.
our behavior consists mainly of fixed action patterns.
d.
most aspects of our social behavior have an evolutionary basis.
e.
the social behavior of humans is homologous to the social behavior of honeybees.
 



 
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