Name: 
 

Chapter 54



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following best explains why energy cannot cycle through an ecosystem?
a.
the law of conservation of energy
b.
the second law of thermodynamics
c.
the competitive exclusion principle
d.
the green world hypothesis
e.
the principle of biomagnification
 

 2. 

To recycle nutrients, the minimum an ecosystem must have is
a.
producers.
b.
producers and decomposers.
c.
producers, primary consumers, and decomposers.
d.
producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and decomposers.
e.
producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, top carnivores, and decomposers.
 

 3. 

Many homeowners mow their lawns during the summer and collect the clippings, which are then hauled to the local landfill. Which of the following alternatives would cause the least disturbance to local ecosystems?
a.
Don't mow the lawn-have sheep graze it and put the sheep's feces into the landfill.
b.
Collect the clippings and burn them.
c.
Either collect the clippings and add them to a compost pile, or don't collect the clippings and let them decompose on the lawn.
d.
Collect the clippings and wash them into the nearest storm sewer that feeds into the local lake.
e.
Dig up the lawn and cover the yard with asphalt.
 

 4. 

Subtraction of which of the following will convert gross primary productivity into net primary productivity?
a.
the energy contained in the standing crop
b.
the energy used by heterotrophs in respiration
c.
the energy used by autotrophs in respiration
d.
the energy fixed by photosynthesis
e.
all solar energy
 

 5. 

Which of these ecosystems accounts for the largest amount of Earth's net primary productivity?
a.
tundra
b.
savanna
c.
salt marsh
d.
open ocean
e.
tropical rain forest
 

 6. 

How does inefficient transfer of energy among trophic levels influence the typically high risk of extinction shared by most top predators?
a.
Predators are sparsely distributed.
b.
Predators have relatively small population sizes.
c.
Predators are more disease-prone than animals at lower trophic levels.
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 7. 

In general, the total biomass in a terrestrial ecosystem will be greatest for which trophic level?
a.
producers
b.
herbivores
c.
primary consumers
d.
tertiary consumers
e.
secondary consumers
 

 8. 

For most terrestrial ecosystems, pyramids of numbers, biomass, and energy are essentially the same-they have a broad base and a narrow top. The primary reason for this pattern is that
a.
secondary consumers and top carnivores require less energy than producers.
b.
at each step, energy is lost from the system as a result of keeping the organisms alive.
c.
as matter passes through ecosystems, some of it is lost to the environment.
d.
biomagnification of toxic materials limits the secondary consumers and top carnivores.
e.
top carnivores and secondary consumers have a more general diet than primary producers.
 

 9. 

Which of the following statements is correct about biogeochemical cycling?
a.
The phosphorus cycle involves the rapid recycling of atmospheric phosphorus.
b.
The phosphorus cycle is a sedimentary cycle that involves the weathering of rocks.
c.
The carbon cycle is a localized cycle that primarily reflects the burning of fossil fuels.
d.
The carbon cycle has maintained a constant atmospheric concentration of CO2 for the past million years.
e.
The nitrogen cycle involves movement of nitrogen very little of which is chemically altered by either the biotic or abiotic components of the ecosystem.
 

 10. 

Human-induced modifications of the nitrogen cycle can result in
a.
eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems.
b.
increased availability of fixed nitrogen to primary producers.
c.
accumulation of toxic levels of nitrates in groundwater.
d.
A and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 
 
Use the figure below to answer the following questions. Examine this food web for a particular terrestrial ecosystem. Each letter is a species. The arrows represent energy flow.

chpt54_files/i0120000.jpg
 

 11. 

Species C is toxic to predators. Which species is most likely to benefit from being a mimic of C?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 12. 

Excluding the decomposer, biomass would probably be smallest for which species?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 
 
The following questions refer to the terms below. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.
green world hypothesis
B.
turnover
C.
biological magnification
D.
greenhouse effect
E.
cultural eutrophication
 

 13. 

CO2 and water vapor re-reflect infrared radiation back toward Earth
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 14. 

caused excessively high levels of DDT in fish-eating birds
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 15. 

Burning fossil fuels releases oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Ultimately, these are probably responsible for
a.
the death of fish in Norwegian lakes.
b.
rain with a pH of 3.0.
c.
calcium deficiency in soils.
d.
B and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 



 
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